World Economic Forum
The GCP's flagship publication is the Global Competitiveness Report (GCR). It is the most comprehensive and authoritative assessment of the comparative strengths and weaknesses of national economies, used by governments, academics and business leaders.
"Failures to respond to opportunities arising out of a sense of social superiority or social inferiority are expressions of a common principle. People respond to the example of those with whom they identify socially. When there is awareness of a developmental achievement by one belonging to the same social and cultural context, it can evoke a powerful urge for accomplishment in society. When the achievement is by one who lies outside the context, it is often ignored. Thus, the adoption of new crops and cultivation practices by a wealthy farmer may not lead to similar behavior by smaller farmers in the same community. Age, social status, class, caste, wealth, occupation and other factors help define social identity." Comprehensive Theory of Social Development
ILO and EEC Links
Recommendation No. 189 - Job Creation in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises
Least developed countries
The United Nations has designated 49 countries as least developed: Afghanistan, Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cape Verde, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Comoros, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Kiribati, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Rwanda, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sudan, Togo, Tuvalu, Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania, Vanuatu, Yemen and Zambia. Except where otherwise indicated, the totals for least developed countries refer to these 49 countries.
Major economic areas
The classification of countries and territories according to main economic areas used in the UNCTAD Handbook of International Trade and Development Statistics 2001. 1 Countries and territories are classified according to main economic areas as follows:
Developed market economy countries: Australia, Canada, the European Union (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom), Faeroe Islands, Gibraltar, Iceland, Israel, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, Switzerland and the United States.
Countries in Eastern Europe: Albania, Belarus, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, the Republic of Moldova, Romania, the Russian Federation, Slovakia and Ukraine.
Developing countries and territories: All other countries, territories and areas in Africa, Asia, America, Europe and Oceania not specified above.
Other country groupings
DAC member countries: The countries members of the OECD Development Assistance Committee are Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States.
OPEC member countries: The countries members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries are Algeria, Ecuador, Gabon, Indonesia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Venezuela.
Different perspectives on social change and development
Leaving aside the rhetoric, this series of articles seeks to explore some of the underlying reasons for social development.
Deepening Democracy in a Fragmented World - United Nations Development Programme
Politics matter for human development. Reducing poverty depends as much on whether poor people have political power as on their opportunities for economic progress. Democracy has proven to be the system of governance most capable of mediating and preventing conflict and of securing and sustaining well-being. By expanding people's choices about how and by whom they are governed, democracy brings principles of participation and accountability to the process of human development.
Perspectives on Social Development
Development is a function of society’s capacity to organize human energies and productive resources to respond to opportunities and challenges. The paper traces the emergence of higher, more complex, more productive levels of social organization through the stages of nomadic hunting, rural agrarian, urban, commercial, industrial and post-industrial societies. It examines the process by which new activities are introduced by pioneers, imitated, resisted, accepted, organized, institutionalized and assimilated into the culture. Why does a society develop the way it does? by Gene Shackman, Ya-Lin Liu and George (Xun) Wang
"Why does a society develop the way it does?" by Gene
Shackman, Ya-Lin Liu and George (Xun) Wang" and "Summary of
theories of change" is now at
From rhetoric to reality of African development: Unctad calls for major policy shift
Declining aid and terms of trade, mounting debt, and ineffective adjustment policies have left sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) poorer than two decades ago. Bolstering growth and halving poverty in Africa over the next 15 years will require a dramatic increase in aid and trade for the continent, says a new UNCTAD report, released today.
With a projected growth rate of just over 3% for the next decade, Africa's fortunes are unlikely to improve. This figure, marginally above population growth, is only half the 6% target set by the United Nations 10 years ago to tackle the economic and social challenges of the continent.
The UNCTAD report, entitled Economic Development in Africa: Performance, Prospects and Policy Issues (UNCTAD/GDS/AFRICA/1), sketches the main policy measures required to reverse this situation. These include:
[PDF, 73 pp. 159Kb]
- The least developed Countries report 2002.
"Why does a society develop the way it does? by Gene Shackman, Ya-Lin
Liu and George (Xun) Wang" and "Summary of theories of
change" is now at
Gene Shackman web site on Social, Economic and Political Change addressing: The basic question of interest is "Why does society develop the way that it does?" How did the various political systems develop, how do different customs and social systems come about. Some specific topics include: what is globalization and how is it happening, why did industrialization first occur in Europe, how far will democratization spread and in what forms.
Special Research Websites
The much talked about, but rarely defined "The Third Way"
Articles of Interest
To conduct your own search for relevant articles, please go to:- World Bank - Documents & Reports - An excellent web resource
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